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Technical manuals

Manual for commercial production of the swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri

The information presented in this manuals was designed to help farmers with the commercial production of ornamental fish in Hawaii and does not necessarily apply to all locations and conditions. The methods described could be applied to other livebearing fishes such as the molly, the guppy, and the platy

October 9, 2019


Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Taxonomy

The Livebearers

Biology of the Swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri

Geographic Distribution

Morphology

Reproductive Biology

Sex Ratio

Gestation and Embryonic Development

Effects of Temperature on Reproduction

Fecundity

Growth

Culture System

Breeding

Commercial-Scale Production

Stocking Densities for Growout 

Feeding

Water Quality

Harvesting Livebearers

Preparation for harvesting

Harvesting Gear

Harvesting by Seine

Holding Tanks

Grading for Size

Preparation of Anesthesia

Sorting

Bagging and Shipping

Disease .

Formalin Preparation

Economics 

Start-up Costs for Small-scale Module

Factors Affecting the Price of Swordtails

Literature Cited

Recommended Reading and References

Appendix 1. List of Distributors for Equipment and Supplies

Appendix 2.  Pictorial Guide of the Sorting Procedure 

Appendix 3. Glossary

Acknowledgments

Authors

Clyde S. Tamaru,  Brian Cole,  Rich Bailey, Christopher Brown, and Harry Ako

University of Hawaii Sea Grant Extension Service, School of Ocean Earth Science and Technology, 2525 Correa Road, HIG 237, Honolulu HI 96822

December 2001

Published by

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture (CTSA)

Download the manual from the link below.

a-manual-for-commercial-production-of-the-swordtail-xiphophorus-helleri

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