Nutritional Composition, Quality and Hazards Profiling of Commercial Post-Larval Feeds Used in Litopenaeus Vannamei Hatcheries
Nutritional profile and quality of commercial post-larval (PL) feeds (n=9), zoea feeds (n=2), mysis feeds (n=2) and artemia cysts (n=2) of different brands used in Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries located in Andhra Pradesh on the east coast of India were assessed. The moisture content of PL feeds ranged between 6.48 and 11.04%. Average protein and fat content of PL feed was distinctly lower than zoea feed, mysis feed and artemia. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were lower than unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) in all the hatchery feeds. Palmitic acid-C16 (7.09%) and tricosylic acid-C23 (6.29%), were the dominant SFA; oleic acid-C18:1 (38.92%) was the predominant monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA); linolenic acid-C18:3 (9%) and docosahexaenoic acid DHA-C22:6 (8.53) were the prominent monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) recorded in PL feeds. Eicosapentaenoic acid EPA-C20:5 content in PL feed was low (1.15%). Essential amino acids (EAA) ranged between 22.3 and 41.53% in PL feeds. The monoamino dicarboxylic acidic amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) constituted nearly 35% of the total amino acids in PL feeds. The organochlorine pesticide, HepEpo was detected in one mysis feed sample at 7.05 ppb level. Chloramphenicol was detected in two PL feed samples at a high level of 112.5 ppb and 453 ppb. Cd content was more than 1ppm in PL, zoea and mysis feeds. Pb content was less than 1ppb in all the hatchery feeds.
APC ranged between 20 and 560 cfu g-1. Total Enterobacteriaceae, yeast and molds were detected only in one PL feed (20 cfu g-1). The study revealed the need for good manufacturing practices (GMP) and screening of all feed components for antibiotics, pesticide residues and heavy metals.
Hatchery feed, Litopenaeus vannamei, Nutrient composition, Residue profiling
L. N. Murthy, B. Madhusudana Rao, R. Anandan, Suseela Mathew, P. T. Lakshmanan, M. M. Prasad
Indian J. Fish., 62 (1): 85-94, 2015Download Document▸
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