Live Feed Production

Evaluation of the Biochemical Composition of Four Marine Algae and Its Nutritional Value for Brine Shrimp

Introduction

Aquaculture is becoming a major system for augmenting animal production, to supplement the stagnating marine fish production and to compensate the growing uncertainties of marine resource sustainability (Sankar and Ramachandran, 2002). Hence developing new technology, new breeds and newly domesticated breeds of fishes and live feeds offer a great hope for the future with a promise for blue revolution in the century to match the green revolution (Bernado, 2003). The first feeding of any cultivable organism is the most „critical phase‟ of their life when they need the right type of nourishment for their survival and growth. Live diets include three groups of organisms namely phytoplankton such as microalgae (2 - 20 µm) and zooplankton such as rotifers (50 - 200 µm) and brine shrimp, Artemia sp. (200 - 300µm) (Annon, 2000). Artemia sp. is extremely important as a standard live feed for over 85% of marine species (Kinne, 1977). Artemia sp. is a biologically uncontaminated readily available and acceptable larval feed (Takami, 1993; Reddy & Thakur, 1998), possessing several features such as: small size, easy ingestion (Lèger et al., 1986), high nutritional value, unchanging food requirement from nauplii to adult (Helfrich, 1973) and high tolerance to various culture environments (Lèger et al., 1987). Moreover they also can be used as biovehicles by which the nutritional components can be administered to the fish and shrimp larvae. This phenomenon is known as bioencapsulation of live food organisms (Tamaru et al., 2000). Microalgae which are at the base of the food chain represent the third largest aquacultured crop in the world (Hanisak, 1998 & Annon 2000). In nature, most fishes and shrimps feed on varied types of natural phytoplanktons and zooplanktons. Farming of marine animals, including both finfish and invertebrates – chiefly crustaceans (shrimps) and mollusks requires microalgae as feed at some point in the life cycle (Jeffrey et al., 1994). However microalgae are also used widely to improve the nutritional content of zooplankton live feeds by allowing the zooplankton to fill their digestive systems with microalgae before subsequently being fed to the fish or shrimp larvae. In this “conditioning” strategy the zooplanktons serve as bags of appropriate size that partially digest the algae and stimulate components to the larvae. The green algae Dunaliella, produces abundant β-carotene (Wikifors, 2000) (an accessory light harvesting pigment) (Glazer,1983). Carotenoids contribute to the health and reproduction in fishes, as well as their pigmentation. It is well documented that crustaceans are unable to biosynthesize carotenoids and therefore, the carotenoids are included in the feed and fed to fishes and shrimps through Artemia sp. nauplii. The aim of this present study is to explore the nutritional evaluati of Artemia sp. nauplii enriched with different algal sources.

Cordilea Hannah1,2, Mathumathi Mani2 and Rengasamy Ramasamy2

1 Dept. Plant Biology & Plant Biotechnology, Women’s Christian College,Chennai – 600006, INDIA;

2 Center for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras (Guindy campus), Chennai – 600 025, INDIA.

IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS). e-ISSN: 2278-3008, p-ISSN:2319-7676. Volume 6, Issue 3 (May. – Jun. 2013), PP 47-51

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