Live Feed Production
Development of lipid microbeads for delivery of lipid and water-soluble materials to Artemia
Lipid spray beads (LSB) containing high concentrations of phospholipids were produced in order to improve their dispersion in both fresh and saltwater. The beads were developed to deliver both fat-soluble and water-soluble micronutrients to Artemia and other suspension feeders. LSB were prepared by spraying molted lipid into a chamber that was cooled with liquid nitrogen in order to solidify the lipid beads. Addition of soy lecithin to LSB did not affect retention of glycine when the beads were suspended in distilled water. There was an initial loss of 80% incorporated glycine after LSB were suspended in water for 20min. Artemia readily ingested riboflavin-containing LSB and their full guts were evident within 30min of feeding. The riboflavin content of Artemia could be increased from 55± 0.6 mg kg−1 (dw) to 329±62 mg kg−1 (dw) after 1h enrichment. LSB prepared with phospholipids are promising vehicles for enrichment of suspension-feeding organisms used as feed for larval marine fish and crustaceans as well as other suspension feeders.
Lipid beads; Phospholipids; Amino acid; Nutrient; Glycine; Riboflavin; Oxytetracycline; Artemia
A. Nordgreen a, K. Hamre a, C. Langdon b
a National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Post Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
b Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station, and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365, USA
Elsevier. Aquaculture 273 (2007) 614–623
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